Two-Dimensional Catalan Numbers
The Catalan number, C(n), is the number of ways a polygon with n sides can be triangulated with no additional vertices. These numbers can be calculated recursively. We generalize the problem to the next higher dimension. Given a triangulation T of the 2-sphere, define the Catalan number of T to be the number of non-degenerate ``triangulations'' of the ball with tetrahedra that have boundary isomorphic to T and which only use vertices in T.
Question: How do you compute the Catalan number of a triangulation of the 2-sphere?
The smallest example is the complete graph K(4). This is trivial as there is only one such decomposition into tetrahedra. The next smallest example is K(5)-K(2). The problem generalizes to even higher dimensions.
Submitted by: Steve Fisk, Department of Mathematics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick ME 04011-2599 USA.
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